This section aims to provide a useful bibliography of research on democratic decay. The bibliography spans constitutional, international and transnational law, political science, and policy, but has a strong focus on research by public lawyers. The bibliography will be updated regularly based on new additions and suggestions from website users. 



Suggest an addition by filling out the form below. It should be noted that the bibliography aims to include research that is squarely within the (rather broad) rubric of democratic decay, as described in the Concept Index section. See the Bibliography Updates section for monthly updates providing additional research based on new publications and suggestions from DEM-DEC users.

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(ii) Press CTRL+F and enter a search term (e.g. 'Poland', 'authoritarian'). 


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- A Word format version that can be used, amended, and altered by users to suit their own research purposes. 

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Rather than providing an extended introduction to this bibliography, it appears useful to highlight a number of key points and trends. The first is that there has been a veritable avalanche of new research in this area in the past three years, and it has increased year on year. The second is that a number of key countries are clear 'hot spots' for such research (i.e. Hungary, Poland, USA, Venezuela) while others are understudied, especially in English-language literature (e.g. Brazil). Third is that, outside policy reports, few works attempt a genuinely global perspective on the topic: although many analyses are based on exercises in comparative constitutional law, this is usually to serve extended analysis of 1-2 selected countries. Fourth, as far as the role of international organisations is concerned, the literature on the EU dwarfs that on any other international organisation, although a number of highly useful comparative works can be found. 



Broadly following the approach adopted in Oxford Bibliographies, this bibliography is not divided by publication type (i.e. monographs, edited collections, articles, etc) but is organised thematically and geographically: see below. 

To aid users, entries are marked with a symbol indicating the type of publication listed, as follows: Ⓜ Monograph  Ⓔ Edited collection Ⓒ Book chapter Ⓐ Journal article ⓦ Working paper/conference paper Ⓑ Blog post Ⓟ Policy report

Biblio_circles [2].png

A   Themes

  1. Framing the Research Field and Concepts

  2. Background Reading: The Rises and Falls of Democracy

  3. The Global Crisis of Democracy: Recent Research

  4. Endurance, Resilience and Transformation

  5. Constitutionalism, Democracy, Liberalism and Rule of Law

  6. The 4 'Isms': Authoritarianism, Fascism, Populism, Totalitarianism

  7. Hybrid Regimes and Modern Authoritarianism

  8. Law as a Weapon: Hollowing Out Democracy

  9. Law as a Shield: Defending Democracy

B    World Regions

  1. Europe

  2. North America

  3. Latin America

  4. Asia

  5. Africa

C    International organisations

  1. General/comparative

  2. European Union (EU)

  3. Organisation of American States (OAS)


  5. African Union (AU)

  6. Commonwealth


a   themes


1    framing the research field and concepts


— Ⓑ ‘The “C word”: Democratic Decay and the New Frontiers of Comparative Law’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 8 March 2017.

— Ⓑ ‘Time to View Democratic Decay as a Unified Research Field?’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 30 September 2016. 

Ⓟ DEMOCRACY REPORTING INTERNATIONAL (DRI), 'False Frames: How We Undermine Democracy with Careless Language'. Briefing Paper 89 (November 2017).


2   background reading: the rises and falls of democracy

Ⓜ BERMAN S, Democracy and Dictatorship in Europe: From the Ancien Regime to the Present Day (forthcoming, Oxford University Press, 2019). 

Ⓜ CAROTHERS T & SAMET-MARRAM O, The New Global Marketplace of Political Change (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2015).

Ⓐ CAROTHERS T, ‘The End of the Transition Paradigm’ (2002) 13 Journal of Democracy 5.

Ⓜ CELIKATES R, WESCHE T & KREIDE R, Transformations of Democracy: Crisis, Protest and Legitimation (Rowman & Littlefield International, 2015).

Ⓜ DIAMOND L, In Search of Democracy (Routledge, 2015). 

Ⓜ DIAMOND L, The Spirit of Democracy: The Struggle to Build Free Societies Throughout the World (Henry Holt and Company, 2008).

Ⓜ DYZENHAUS D, Legality and Legitimacy: Carl Schmitt, Hans Kelsen and Hermann Heller in Weimar (Oxford University Press, 1999).

Ⓐ FRANCK T, ‘The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance’ (1992) 86(1) Journal of International Law 46.

Ⓐ FRANTZ E & KENDALL-TAYLOR A, 'The Evolution of Autocracy: Why Authoritarianism Is Becoming More Formidable' (2017) 59 Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 57.

Ⓐ KAPSTEIN EB & CONVERSE N, ‘Why Democracies Fail’ (2008) 19(4) Journal of Democracy 57.

Ⓜ KENNEDY E, Constitutional Failure: Carl Schmitt in Weimar (Duke University Press, 2004).

Ⓐ KRASTEV I, ‘The Strange Death of the Liberal Consensus’ (2007) 18(4) Journal of Democracy 56.

Ⓜ LEVITSKY S & WAY LA, Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War (Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Ⓐ LEVITSKY S & WAY LA, ‘The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism’ (2002) 13(2) Journal of Democracy 51.

Ⓜ LEWIS S, It Can’t Happen Here (1935; Penguin, 2017).

Ⓔ LINZ J & STEPAN A (eds), The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978).

Ⓐ MAEDA K, ‘Two Modes of Democratic Breakdown: A Competing Risks Analysis of Democratic Durability (2010) 72(4) The Journal of Politics 1129-1143.

Ⓐ MAINWARING S & PÉREZ-LIÑÁN A, ‘Democratic Breakdown and Survival’ (2013) 24(2) Journal of Democracy 123.

Ⓜ MOYN S, The Last Utopia (Harvard University Press, 2012).

Ⓜ PRZEWORSKI A, Sustainable Democracy (Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Ⓜ PICCONE T, Five Rising Democracies: And the Fate of the International Liberal Order (Brookings Institution Press, 2016).

Ⓐ PLATTNER, MF, ‘The End of the Transitions Era?’ (2014) 25(3) Journal of Democracy 5.

Ⓜ SCHMITT C, Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty Schwab G edn (University of Chicago Press, 2010).

Ⓜ SCHNEIDER C, The Consolidation of Democracy: Comparing Europe and Latin America (Routledge, 2008).

Ⓜ SHARMA R, The Rise and Fall of Nations: Ten Rules of Change in the Post-Crisis World (Penguin UK, 2016).

Ⓜ SLAUGHTER A-M, A New World Order (Princeton University Press, 2004).

—    Chess Story (1942; New York Review Books, 2011).
—    The World of Yesterday: An Autobiography (University of Nebraska Press, 1964).

Ⓔ DIAMOND L & MORLINO L (eds), Assessing the Quality of Democracy (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005).

Ⓔ O'DONNELL G, VARGAS CULLELL J & IAZZETTA OM (eds), The Quality of Democracy: Theory and Applications (University of Notre Dame Press, 2004).


—    Ⓐ ‘The Perpetual Crises of Democracy’ (2007) 18 Journal of Democracy 5.

—    Ⓐ ‘Illusions About Consolidation’ (1996) 7(2) Journal of Democracy 34.

Ⓐ ZAKARIA F, ‘The Rise of Illiberal Democracy’ (1997) Foreign Affairs 22.



Ⓐ BERMEO N, ‘On Democratic Backsliding’ (2016) 27(1) Journal of Democracy 5.


—   Ⓐ ‘Countering Democratic Norms’ (2015) 26(3) Journal of Democracy 49.

—   Ⓟ ‘The League of Authoritarian Gentleman’ Foreign Policy 30 January 2013.


—  Ⓟ ‘Democratic Decay in 2016’ in International IDEA Annual Review of Constitution-Building Processes: 2016 (International IDEA, 2017). 

—  ⓦ ‘Diagnosing Democratic Decay’, Comparative Constitutional Law Round-table, Gilbert and Tobin Centre for Public Law, UNSW Law School, 7 August 2017.

—  Ⓑ ‘Enough Complacency: Fighting Democratic Decay in 2017’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 11 January 2017.

—  ⓦ ‘The Democratic Recession and the ‘New’ Public Law: Toward Systematic Analysis’ , I-CON conference, Humboldt University, Berlin, 17 June 2016.

—  Ⓑ  ‘The Democratic Recession and the ‘New’ Public Law’ Int’l. J. Const. L. Blog 22 April 2016.

Ⓔ DIAMOND L, PLATTNER MF & WALKER C, Authoritarianism Goes Global: The Challenge to Democracy (John Hopkins University Press, 2016).

Ⓔ DIAMOND L & PLATTNER M (eds), Democracy in Decline? (John Hopkins University Press, 2015). 

Ⓐ DIAMOND L, ‘Facing Up to the Democratic Recession’ (2015) 26(1) Journal of Democracy 141.

Ⓟ ECONOMIST INTELLIGENCE UNIT, Democracy Index 2017: Free Speech Under Attack (EIU, 2018). 

Ⓐ ERCAN SA & GAGNON J-P, Editorial: 'The Crisis of Democracy: Which Crisis? Which Democracy?' (2014) 1(2) Democratic Theory 1.

Ⓐ FOA R & MOUNK Y, ‘The Danger of Deconsolidation: The Democratic Disconnect’ (2016) 27(3) Journal of Democracy 5.


—  Ⓟ 'Nations in Transit 2018: Confronting Illiberalism' (Freedom House, 2018)

—  Ⓟ 'Democracy in Crisis. Freedom in the World 2018'.

—  Ⓟ'Populists and Autocrats: The Dual Threat to Global Democracy. Freedom in the World 2017'.

—  Ⓟ A Puddington, 'Breaking Down Democracy: Goals, Strategies, and Methods of Modern Authoritarians' (Freedom House, June 2017)

—  Ⓟ 'Anxious Dictators, Wavering Democracies: Global Freedom Under Pressure. Freedom in the World 2016'.

—  Ⓟ 'Discarding Democracy: Return to the Iron Fist. Freedom in the World 2015'.

Ⓜ FUKUYAMA F, Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books, 2014).

Ⓐ GINSBURG T, HUQ A & VERSTEEG M, 'The Coming Demise of Liberal Constitutionalism?' (2018) 85 University of Chicago Law Review 239. 

Ⓜ GINSBURG T & HUQ A, How to Save a Constitutional Democracy (University of Chicago Press, forthcoming, 2018). 

Ⓔ GRABER M, LEVINSON S & TUSHNET M (eds), Constitutional Democracy in Crisis? (Oxford University Press, 2018).

Ⓐ HUQ A, 'Terrorism and Democratic Recession' (2018) 85 The University of Chicago Law Review 457

Ⓐ ISSACHAROFF S, 'Democracy’s Deficits' (2018) 85 The University of Chicago Law Review 485. 

Ⓜ KLASS B, The Despot's Accomplice: How the West is Aiding and Abetting the Decline of Democracy (Oxford University Press, 2017).

Ⓜ LEVITSKY S & ZIBLATT, How Democracies Die: What History Reveals About Our Future (Penguin UK, 2018).

Ⓜ LUCE E, The Retreat of Western Liberalism (Hachette UK, 2017).

Ⓜ MOUNK Y, The People Versus Democracy: The Rise of Undemocratic Liberalism and the Threat of Illiberal Democracy (Harvard University Press, 2018).

Ⓜ OTTAWAY M, Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism (Carnegie Endowment, 2013 ).

Ⓜ RICHARDS S, The Rise of the Outsiders: How Mainstream Politics Lost its Way (Atlantic Books, 2017).

ⓦ SHIRAH R, 'Authoritarian Backsliding in New Democracies' APSA 2012 Annual Meeting Paper.


4   Endurance, Resilience and Transformation

Ⓒ ALBERT R & PAL M, 'The Democratic Resilience of the Canadian Constitution' in M Graber, S Levinson & M Tushnet (eds), Constitutional Democracy in Crisis? (Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2018).

ⓦ COLÓN-RÍOS J, ‘What is a Constitutional Transition?’. Symposium on Constitution-Making and Constitutional-Design, Boston College, 31 October 2014.

Ⓒ GINSBURG T, 'Constitutional Endurance' in T Ginsburg & R Dixon (eds), Comparative Constitutional Law (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011).

Ⓟ INTERNATIONAL IDEA, The Global State of Democracy: Exploring Democracy’s Resilience (1st edn, 2017).

Ⓐ NORRIS P, ‘Is Western democracy backsliding?  Diagnosing the risks’ (2017) 28(2) Journal of Democracy 1.

Ⓒ SCHMITTER P, ‘Crisis and Transition, but Not Decline’ in L Diamond & M Plattner (eds), Democracy in Decline? (John Hopkins University Press, 2015).


5    Constitutionalism, Democracy, Liberalism and Rule of Law

Ⓔ DOWDLE MW & WILKINSON MA (eds), Constitutionalism Beyond Liberalism (Cambridge University Press, 2017).

Ⓐ FALLON JR. RH, ‘The ‘Rule of Law’ as a Concept in Constitutional Discourse’ (1997) 97(1) Columbia Law Review 1.

Ⓐ FERRAJOLI L, ‘The Normative Paradigm of Constitutional Democracy’ 17 Res Publica 355 (2011).

Ⓒ FREEDEN M & STEARS M, 'Liberalism' in M Freeden and M Stears (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies (Oxford University Press, 2013).

Ⓒ GODDEN A & MORISON J, 'Constitutionalism' in R Grote, F Lachenmann, R Wolfrum (eds.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law (Oxford University Press Online Edition, 2017).

Ⓟ KLEINFELD BELTON R, ‘Competing definitions of the rule of law. Implications for practitioners’. Carnegie Papers. Rule of Law Series no 55 (2005).

Ⓒ KRYGIER M, ‘Rule of Law’ in M Rosenfeld & A Sajó (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law (Oxford University Press, 2012).

Ⓜ OKLOPCIC Z, Beyond the People: Social Imaginary and Constituent Imagination (Oxford University Press, 2018).

Ⓜ SEMPILL J, Power & the Law (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

Ⓐ SEMPILL, J, ‘Ruler’s Sword, Citizen’s Shield: The Rule of Law & the Constitution of Power’ (2016) 31 Journal of Law & Politics 333. 

Ⓒ THIO L-A, ‘Constitutionalism in Illiberal Polities’ in M Rosenfeld & A Sajó (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law (Oxford University Press, 2012).

Ⓒ TOMUSCHAT C, ‘Democracy and the Rule of Law’ in D Shelton (ed), The Oxford Handbook of International Human Rights Law (Oxford University Press, 2013).

Ⓜ UITZ R & SAJÓ A, The Constitution of Freedom: An Introduction to Legal Constitutionalism (OUP, 2017).

Ⓒ WALKER G, ‘The Idea of Nonliberal Constitutionalism’ in I Shapiro & W Kymlicka (eds), Ethnicity and Group Rights (New York University Press, 1997).

Ⓒ WHITTINGTON K, 'Constitutionalism' in GA Caldeira, RD Kelemen, and KE Whittington (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics (Oxford University Press, 2017).


6    The 4 'Isms': Authoritarianism, Fascism, Populism, Totalitarianism


Ⓐ FRANTZ E & KENDALL-TAYLOR A, 'The Evolution of Autocracy: Why Authoritarianism Is Becoming More Formidable' (2017) 59 Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 57.

Ⓟ PUDDINGTON A, 'Breaking Down Democracy: Goals, Strategies, and Methods of Modern Authoritarians' (Freedom House, June 2017).

Ⓒ TÓTH GA, 'Authoritarianism' in R Grote, F Lachenmann, R Wolfrum (eds.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law (Oxford University Press Online Edition, 2017).


Ⓜ ALBRIGHT M, Fascism: A Warning (Harper Collins, 2018).

Ⓒ EATWELL R, 'Fascism' in M Freeden & M Stears (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies (Oxford University Press, 2017).


ⓦHOWSE R, 'Populism and Its Enemies'. Workshop on Public Law and the New Populism, Jean Monnet Center, NYU Law School, 15-16 September 2017. 


— Ⓔ (ed), The Populist Radical Right: A Reader (Routledge, 2017).

— Ⓟ 'Are Populists Friends or Foes of Constitutionalism?' (The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society, 2013).

Ⓜ MUDDE C & ROVIRA KALTWASSER C, Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2017).

Ⓜ MÜLLER J-W, What Is Populism? (Penguin UK, 2017)

Ⓔ ROVIRA KALTWASSER C, TAGGART PA, OCHOA ESPECJO P & OSTIGUY P (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Populism (Oxford University Press, 2017). 

ⓦ WALKER N, 'Populism and Constitutional Tension', Edinburgh School of Law Research Paper No. 2018/18, International Journal of Constitutional Law (2019, Forthcoming).


Ⓜ ARENDT H, The Origins of Totalitarianism 2nd edn (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1973).

Ⓒ GENTILE E, 'Total and Totalitarian Ideologies' in M Freeden & M Stears (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies (Oxford University Press, 2017).


7    hybrid regimes and modern authoritarianism

Ⓑ BOZÓKI A, 'Illiberal Democracy Belongs to the Hybrid Regimes: Reflections on Jeffrey C. Isaac’s Illiberal Democracy' Public Seminar 2 August 2017. 


— Ⓐ 'The Evolution of Autocracy: Why Authoritarianism Is Becoming More Formidable' (2017) 59 Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 57.

— Ⓐ 'Mimicking Democracy to Prolong Autocracies' (2014) 37(4) The Washington Quarterly 71.


— Ⓜ Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

— Ⓐ ‘The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism’ (2002) 13(2) Journal of Democracy 51.

Ⓟ PUDDINGTON A, 'Breaking Down Democracy: Goals, Strategies, and Methods of Modern Authoritarians' (Freedom House, June 2017).




Abusive comparative law


— Ⓐ 'The Rule of Law and the Frankenstate: Why Governance Checklists Do Not Work' (2013) 26(4) Governance 559.

— Ⓐ 'Not Your Father’s Authoritarianism: The Creation of the “Frankenstate"' (2013) European Politics & Society Newsletter 5.

Abusive constitutionalism

Ⓐ LANDAU D, ‘Abusive Constitutionalism’ (2013) 47 UC Davis Law Review 189.

Autocratic legalism

Ⓐ SCHEPPELE KL, 'Autocratic Legalism' (2018) 85 The University of Chicago Law Review 545. 

Constitutional capture


— Ⓒ 'Protecting the Rule of Law (and Democracy!) in the EU: The Idea of a Copenhagen Commission' in C Closa & D Kochenov (eds), Reinforcing Rule of Law Oversight in the European Union (Cambridge University Press, 2016)

—  'Rising to the challenge of constitutional capture' Eurozine 21 March 2014

Constitutional retrogression

Ⓐ HUQ AZ  & GINSBURG T , ‘How to Lose a Constitutional Democracy’ (2018) 65 UCLA Law Review 95.

Populist constitutionalism

Ⓐ LANDAU D, 'Populist Constitutions' (2018) 85 The University of Chicago Law Review 521.

Ⓑ BLOKKER, P., ‘Populist Constitutionalism’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 4 May 2017

Ⓑ DIXON, R., ‘Populist Constitutionalism and the Democratic Minimum Core’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 26 April 2017

Stealth authoritarianism

Ⓐ VAROL O, ‘Stealth Authoritarianism’ (2015) 100 Iowa Law Review 1673.


NOTE: A number of additional sub-concepts may be added shortly, e.g. abusive judicial review. 

Abusive impeachment

Ⓑ ZAIDEN BENVINDO J, ‘Abusive Impeachment? Brazilian Political Turmoil and the Judicialization of Mega- Politics’ Int’l. J. Const. L. Blog 23 April 2016.

Permanent states of emergency

GREENE A, Permanent States of Emergency and the Rule of Law: Constitutions in an Age of Crisis (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2018).

Unconstitutional constitutional amendments

Ⓐ ALBERT R, 'Constitutional Amendment and Dismemberment' (2018) 43 Yale Journal of International Law 1.

Ⓑ BÂLI, A, 'Assessing the Risks of Constitutional Revisions' Int’l. J. Const. L. Blog 4 September 2017. 


— Ⓐ Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendments – The Limits of Amendment Powers (Oxford University Press, 2017).

— Ⓐ 'Constitutional Amendment and “Fundamendment”: A Response to Professor Richard Albert' , Yale Journal of International Law Forum (February 27, 2018).

— Ⓐ 'The Theory and Practice of ‘Supra-Constitutional’ Limits on Constitutional Amendments' (2013) 62(3) International & Comparative Law Quarterly 557.  

Ⓐ YAP PJ, ‘The conundrum of unconstitutional constitutional amendments’ (2015) 4(1) Global Constitutionalism 114.



NOTE: Additions will be made to this section soon, including literature on the special counsel mechanism in the USA.

Civic education

Ⓑ DALY TG, ‘Constitutional Ignorance and Democratic Decay: Breaking the Feedback Loop’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 17 November 2016.

Compulsory voting

Ⓑ AL Pap & A Śledzińska-Simon, 'Mandatory Voting as a Tool to Combat the “New Populism”', Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 19 April 2017.

Ⓑ U Eijkelenberg, 'Be Careful What You Wish For – A Short Comment on “Mandatory Voting as a Tool to Combat the New Populism”', Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 19 May 2017.

Constitutional conventions

Ⓐ DOYLE O, ‘Constitutional Transitions, Abusive Constitutionalism and Conventional Constraint’ (2017) 37(1) National Journal of Constitutional Law 67.


Ⓐ BLAUBERGER M & KELEMEN RD, ‘Can courts rescue national democracy? Judicial safeguards against democratic backsliding in the EU’ (2016) 24(3) Journal of European Public Policy 321.

Ⓑ GURUSWAMY, M., 'The Constitutional Burden of the Global Imagination', Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 29 March 2017.  

Ⓐ ISSACHAROFF S, ‘Constitutional Courts and Democratic Hedging’ (2011) 99 Georgetown Law Journal 961.

Ⓐ VIDMAR J, ‘Judicial Interpretations of Democracy in Human Rights Treaties’ (2014) 3 Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law 532.

Ⓐ VINCZE A, ‘The ECJ as the guardian of the Hungarian Constitution: case C-286/12 Commission v. Hungary’ (2013) 19(3) European Public Law 489.

Militant democracy

Ⓐ INVERNIZZI ACCETTI C & ZUCKERMAN I, ‘What’s Wrong With Militant Democracy?’ (2017) 65(15) Political Studies 182.

Ⓜ KIRSHNER AS, A Theory of Militant Democracy: The Ethics of Combatting Political Extremism (Yale University Press, 2014).

Ⓒ MÜLLER J-W,  ‘Militant Democracy’ in M Rosenfeld & A Sajó (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law (Oxford University Press, 2012).

Ⓜ SAJÓ A and RUTT BENTCH L (eds), Militant Democracy (Eleven International Publishing, 2004).

Ⓜ THIEL M (ed), The Militant Democracy Principle in Modern Democracies (Routledge, 2016).

Political party bans

Ⓐ COHEN-ALMAGOR R, ‘Disqualification of Political Parties in Israel: 1988-1996’ (1997) 11 Emory International Law Review 67.

Ⓐ FRANZ, P, ‘Unconstitutional and Outlawed Political Parties: A German-American Comparison’ (1982) 5(1) Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 51.

Ⓐ KOÇAK M & ÖRÜCÜ E, ‘Dissolution of Political Parties in the Name of Democracy: Cases from Turkey and the European Court of Human Rights’ (2003) 9(3) European Public Law 399.


— Ⓐ ‘Progress, Unity, and Democracy: Dissolving Political Parties in Turkey’ (2004) 38 Law & Society Review 433.

— Ⓐ ‘Dissolution of Political Parties by the Constitutional Court in Turkey Judicial Delimitation of the Political Domain’ (2003) 18(1) International Sociology 258.

Ⓐ MERSEL Y, ‘The dissolution of political parties: The problem of internal democracy’ (2006) 4(1) I·CON 84.

Rights innovations

Ⓐ RUBINSTEIN A & ROZNAI Y, 'The Right to a Genuine Electoral Democracy' (2018) 27(1) Minnesota Journal of International Law 143.  

Self-enforcing constitutions

Ⓐ CHOUDHRY S, 'Resisting democratic backsliding: An essay on Weimar, self-enforcing constitutions, and the Frankfurt School' (2018) 7(1) Global Constitutionalism 54.


b    world REGIONs


1  europe & middle east


Ⓑ BLOKKER P, New Democracies in Crisis? A Comparative Constitutional Study of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia (Routledge, 2013).

Ⓜ JOVANOVIĆ, M.A., PAVIĆEVIĆ, Đ. & ĐORĐEVIĆ, B. (eds), Crisis and Quality of Democracy in Eastern Europe (Eleven International Publishing, 2012).

Ⓑ KIRCHICK J, The End of Europe: Dictators, Demagogues, and the Coming Dark Age (Yale University Press, 2017).

Ⓑ KRASTEV I, After Europe (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017).

Ⓜ MESEZNIKOV G, GYÁRFÁSOVÁ O & SMILOV D (eds), Populist Politics and Liberal Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe (Institute for Public Affairs, 2008).

Ⓑ MUDDE C, On Extremism and Democracy in Europe (Routledge, 2016).

Ⓑ MURRAY, D, The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017).

Ⓜ OLSEN T, ‘Porous Publics and Transnational Mobilisation’ in Teune, S. (ed), The Transnational Condition: Protest Dynamics in an Entangled Europe (Berghahn Books, 2010).

Ⓑ PAP AL, Democratic Decline in Hungary: Law and Society in an Illiberal Democracy (Routledge, 2017).

Ⓐ RUPNIK J, 'Is East-Central Europe Backsliding? From Democracy Fatigue to Populist Backlash' (2007) 18(4) Journal of Democracy 17. 

Ⓜ TEUNE S (ed), The Transnational Condition: Protest Dynamics in an Entangled Europe (Berghahn Books, 2010).

Ⓜ VON BOGDANDY A & SONNEVEND P (eds), Constitutional Crisis in the European Constitutional Area: Theory, Law and Politics in Hungary and Romania (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015).


ⒸOTTAWAY M, Ch.5 'Croatia: Toward a Second Transition' in M Ottaway, Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism (Carnegie Endowment, 2013). 


See the relevant chapters in VON BOGDANDY A & SONNEVEND P (eds), Constitutional Crisis in the European Constitutional Area: Theory, Law and Politics in Hungary and Romania (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015).

Ⓑ KANTERIAN E, ‘The Crisis of Democracy in Hungary and Romania – Learning from Weimar?’ Verfassungsblog 13 May 2013. 

Ⓜ KOVÁCS K,  'Changing Constitutional Identity via Amendment' in P Blokker (ed), Constitutional Acceleration within the European Union and Beyond (Routledge, 2017).


— Ⓒ 'From an Imperfect Democracy to an Incomplete Autocracy' in Nowy konstytucjonalizm. Rzady prawa, politycznosc i sfera publiczna (New Constitutionalism. Rule of Law, the Political and the Public Sphere) 2017. 

— Ⓐ 'Hungary's Constitutional Transformation' (2011) 7(2) European Constitutional Law Review 183.

Ⓜ MAGYAR B, Post-Communist Mafia State. The Case of Hungary (CEU Press, 2016). 

SCHEPPELE, KL, ‘Counter-constitutions: Narrating the Nation in Post-Soviet Hungary’, paper presented at George Washington University, Washington DC, 2 April 2004.


— Ⓜ Constitution for a Disunited Nation: On Hungary's 2011 Fundamental Law (CEU Press, 2012).

— Ⓒ 'Illiberal Rule of Law? Changing Features of Hungarian Constitutionalism' in M Adams, A Meuwese & E Hirsch Ballin (eds), Constitutionalism and the Rule of Law: Bridging Idealism and Realism (Cambridge University Press, 2017).

— 'The Authoritarian’s New Clothes: Tendencies Away from Constitutional Democracy'. Policy Brief, The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society (Wolfson College, University of Oxford, 2017).


— Ⓐ 'Can You Tell When an Illiberal Democracy is in the Making? An appeal to Comparative Constitutional Scholarship from Hungary' (2015) 13(1) International Journal of Constitutional Law 279. 

— Ⓒ 'The rule of law in post-Communist constitutional jurisprudence : concerned notes on a fancy decoration' in G Palombella & N Walker (eds), Relocating the Rule of Law (Hart Publishing, 2009).

— Ⓒ 'Hungary' in G Meseznikov, O Gyárfásová & D Smilov (eds), Populist Politics and Liberal Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe (Institute for Public Affairs, 2008).


Ⓐ MORDECHAY N & ROZNAI Y, 'A Jewish and (Declining) Democratic State? Constitutional Retrogression in Israel' (2017) 77(1) Maryland Law Review 101.  

I-CONnect symposium on ‘constitutional capture in Israel’

Ⓑ STOPLER G, 'Introduction to I-CONnect/ICON-S-IL Symposium: Constitutional Capture in Israel?' Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 20 August 2017.

Ⓑ STOPLER G, 'Constitutional Capture in Israel' Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 21 August 2017.

Ⓑ HAREL A, 'The Triumph of Israeli Populism' Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 22 August 2017.

Ⓑ MORDECHAY N & ROZNAI Y, 'Constitutional Retrogression in Israel' Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 23 August 2017.

Ⓑ MEDINA B, 'The Israeli Liberal Democracy: A Critical Assessment' Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 24 August 2017.

Ⓑ PORAT I, 'Is there Constitutional Capture in Israel?' Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 25 August 2017

Ⓑ GAVISON R, 'Some Concluding Comments: What is the State of Democracy? How to Defend It?' Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, Aug. 26, 2017.


Ⓜ EKIERT G & KUBIK J, Rebellious Civil Society: Popular Protest and Democratic Consolidation in Poland, 1989-1993 (University of Michigan Press, 2001).


— ⓦ KONCEWICZ, T.T., Unconstitutonal capture and constitutional recapture: Of the rule of law, separation of powers and judicial promise'. Jean Monnet Working Paper 3/17, Jean Monnet Program, New York University (NYU). 

— Ⓒ ‘Polish Judiciary and the Constitutional Fidelity. “In Judges We Trust”?’ in J Giezka, D Gruszecka and T Kalisz (eds.), Nowa Kodyfikacja Prawa Karnego Tom XLIII: Księga Jubileuszowa Profesora Tomasza Kaczmarka (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2017) [Trans. New Codification of Criminal Law Volume XLIII: Festschrift for Professor Tomasz Kaczmarek (Wroclaw University Press, 2017).

— Ⓐ ‘The “emergency constitutional review” and Polish constitutional crisis. Of constitutional self-defense and judicial empowerment’ (2016) 2(1) Polish Law Review 73.

—  Ⓑ ‘Living under the unconstitutional capture and hoping for the constitutional recapture’ Verfassungsblog 3 January 2017.

—  Ⓑ ‘Constitutional Justice in Handcuffs? Gloves are off in the Polish Constitutional Conflict’ Verfassungsblog 3 September 2016. 

—  Ⓑ ‘Of Constitutional Defiance, Migration and Borrowing of Unconstitutional Tactics and European Resistance’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 17 August 17 2016.  


— Ⓑ ‘The EU and Poland: Giving Up on the Rule of Law?’ Verfassungsblog 15 November 2016.

— Ⓑ ‘Poland and the European Commission, Part II: Hearing the Siren Song of the Rule of Law’ 6 January 2017.

ⓦ SADURSKI W, 'How Democracy Dies (in Poland): A Case Study of Anti-Constitutional Populist Backsliding'. Sydney Law School Research Paper No. 18/01 (January 2018).

Ⓑ SADURSKI W & STEINBEIS M, ‘What is Going on in Poland is an Attack against Democracy’ Verfassungblog 15 July 2016.

Ⓑ MORAWSKI L, ‘A Critical Response’ [response to the Verfassungsblog debate symposium: 'The Polish Constitutional Crisis and Institutional Self-Defense'] Verfassungsblog 3 June 2017.


Ⓒ MACHADO JEM, 'The Portuguese Constitution of 1976: Half-life and Decay' in X Contiades (ed), Engineering Constitutional Change: A Comparative Perspective on Europe, Canada and the USA (Routledge, 2013).


See the relevant chapters in VON BOGDANDY A & SONNEVEND P (eds), Constitutional Crisis in the European Constitutional Area: Theory, Law and Politics in Hungary and Romania (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015).


Ⓑ ĽALÍK T, ‘Constitutional Court Crisis in Slovakia: Still Far Away from Resolution’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 5 August 2016. 


Ⓑ ACAR A, ‘”De-constitutionalism” in Turkey?’ Int’l. J. Const. L. Blog 19 May 2016.

Ⓐ AKMAN CA & AKÇALI P, 'Changing the System through Instrumentalizing Weak Political Institutions: The Quest for a Presidential System in Turkey in Historical and Comparative Perspective (2017) 18(4) Turkish Studies 577.

Ⓐ ALPAN B, 'From AKP’s ‘Conservative Democracy’ to ‘Advanced Democracy’: Shifts and Challenges in the Debate on ‘Europe’'(2016) 21(1) Journal of South European Society and Politics 15.

Ⓐ ESEN B & GUMUSCU S, 'Turkey: How the Coup Failed' (2017) 28(1) Journal of Democracy 59.

Ⓐ TURAM B, 'Turkey Under the AKP: Are Rights and Liberties Safe?' (2012) 23(1) Journal of Democracy 109.


2   north america

Ⓐ BALKIN J, 'Constitutional Crisis and Constitutional Rot' (2017) 77 Maryland Law Review 147.

Ⓜ MOSS DA, Democracy: A Case Study (Harvard University Press, 2017).  

ⒸPOSNER EA & VERMEULE A, ‘Tyrannophobia’ in T Ginsburg (ed), Comparative Constitutional Design (Cambridge University Press, 2012).

Ⓑ LEVINSON SV & STEINBEIS M, ‘Is the US Constitution to Blame for the Rise of Donald Trump? An Interview with Sanford Levinson’ Verfassungsblog 3 November 2016 .

Ⓜ SUNSTEIN CR (ed), Can It Happen Here?: Authoritarianism in America (forthcoming, Dey Street Books, 2018).


3   Latin America


Ⓜ SCHILLING-VACLAFOR A & NOLTE D (eds), New Constitutionalism in Latin America: Promises and Practices (Routledge, 2012).

Ⓜ WEBBER J, The Last Day of Oppression, and the First Day of the Same: The Politics and Economics of the New Latin American Left (Haymarket Books, 2017). 

Ⓐ WOLFF J, ‘Towards Post-Liberal Democracy in Latin America? A Conceptual Framework Applied to Bolivia’ 45 Journal of Latin American Studies 31 (2013).


ⓦ DALY TG, ‘Public Law and the Puzzle of Democratic Decay in Brazil’, Law and Society Association (LSA)/RCSL 2017, Mexico City, 23 June 2017.

Ⓑ DINERSTEIN AC, ‘Impeachment or ‘Soft Coup’?: The Revenge of the Right and the State of Democracy in Brazil and Latin America today’ DevLog@Bath Blog 19 May 2016. 

Ⓐ RIBEIRO G, 'The Brazilian Political Conundrum' (2016) XLVII(3) LASAForum 12.

Ⓑ MAGALHÃES M, ‘Golpe de 2016 é o maior retrocesso da democracia no Brasil desde 1964’ Blog do Mário Magalhães 31 August 2016.

Ⓑ RIETHOF M, ‘Why Brazil’s Political Crisis Matters for Latin American Democracy’ Global Observatory 7 September 2016.

Ⓑ SAAD FILHO, A., ‘The Mass Protests in Brazil in June-July 2013’ Global Research Project 15 July 2013.


— Ⓑ ‘Abusive Impeachment? Brazilian Political Turmoil and the Judicialization of Mega- Politics’ Int’l. J. Const. L. Blog 23 April 2016.

— Ⓑ ‘The Mass Protests of March and April 2015 in Brazil: A Continuation of June 2013?’ Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 29 April 2015.


Ⓐ AACH M, ‘The Decline of Democracy in Venezuela: The Deterioration of Venezuelan Exceptionalism and the Rise of Hugo Chavez’ (2008) 16 Lehigh Review 88.

Ⓜ BREWER-CARÍAS AR, Dismantling Democracy in Venezuela: The Chávez Authoritarian Experiment (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Ⓐ CORRALES J, 'The Authoritarian Resurgence: Autocratic Legalism in Venezuela' (2015) 26(2) Journal of Democracy 37

Ⓒ OTTAWAY M, Ch.3 ‘Venezuela: Democratic Decay’ in M Ottaway, Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism (Carnegie Endowment, 2013).


— Ⓐ ‘Courts between Democracy and Hybrid Authoritarianism: Evidence from the Venezuelan Supreme Court’ (2011) 36(4) Law & Social Inquiry 854.

— Ⓒ ‘Venezuela - the Left Turning Further Left?’ in J Castañeda & MA Morales-Barba (eds), Leftovers: Tales of the Two Latin American Lefts (Routledge, 2008).


4   Asia  


Ⓐ CHULL SHIN D & WELLS J, 'Challenge and Change in East Asia: Is Democracy the Only Game in Town?' (2005) 16(2) Journal of Democracy 88.

Ⓜ CROISSANT A & BÜNTE M (eds), The Crisis of Democratic Governance in Southeast Asia (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

Ⓜ FUNG ESK & DRAKELEY S (eds), Democracy in Eastern Asia: Issues, Problems and Challenges in a Region of Diversity (Routledge, 2013).

India and Sri Lanka

Ⓟ HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, Stifling Dissent: The Criminalization of Peaceful Expression in India (24 May 2016).

Ⓐ SRIDHARAN, E, ‘Behind Modi’s Victory’ (2014) 25(4) Journal of Democracy 20.

Ⓐ STEPAN, A, ‘India, Sri Lanka, and the Majoritarian Danger’ (2015) 26(1) Journal of Democracy 128.

Ⓐ STONE JG, Shifting Tides in South Asia: Sri Lanka’s Postwar Descent (2014) 25(2) Journal of Democracy 146.


Ⓔ KINGSTON J (ed), Press Freedom in Contemporary Japan (Routledge, 2016).

Ⓑ MATSUDAIRA T, 'Abe’s Japan—Another Case of Abusive Constitutionalism' Int’l J. Const. L. Blog 23 September 2017.



— Ⓐ 'Constitutional Deconsecration: Enforcing an Imposed Constitution in Duterte’s Philippines' 62 (2017) Ateneo Law Journal 311.

— Ⓐ ‘Checking Judicial Review: The President’s Totalitarian Temptation’ (2015) 89(1) Philippine Law Journal 31.

— Ⓐ ‘Can Constitutionalism Constrain Constitutional Change?’ (2010) 3(1) Northwestern Interdisciplinary Law Review 22.

Ⓐ THOMPSON MR, 'Bloodied Democracy: Duterte and the Death of Liberal Reformism in the Philippines' (2016) 35(3) Journal of Current South East Asian Affairs 39.

Ⓑ VELAY-VITOW J, ‘Duterte’s Drug War is a Lesson in the Failures of Democracy’ Students for Liberty 13 October 2016.


5    Africa

Ⓜ CRAWFORD G & LYNCH G (eds), Democratization in Africa: Challenges and Prospects (Routledge, 2013).

Ⓐ HACKENESCH C, ‘It’s Domestic Politics, Stupid! EU Democracy Promotion Strategies Meet African Dominant Party Regimes’ (2015) 75 World Development 85.

Ⓟ MO IBRAHIM FOUNDATION, A Decade of African Governance 2006-2015. 2016 Ibrahim Index of African Governance Index Report (October 2016).


Ⓐ KIAI M, 'The Crisis in Kenya' (2008) 19(3) Journal of Democracy 162.

South Africa

Ⓟ BHORAT H, BUTHELEZI M, CHIPKIN I, DUMA S, MONDI L, PETER C, QOBO M & SWILLING M, Betrayal of the Promise: How South Africa is Being Stolen (State Capacity Research Project, May 2017) 

ⓦ DALY TG, ‘Preventing ANC Capture of South African Democracy: A Missed Opportunity for Other ‘Constitutional Courts’?’, I-CON conference, 5-7 July 2016. Panel on ‘Courts, Constitutions & Democratic Hedging’.

Ⓑ FOWKES J, 'Zuma’s South Africa: A Constitutional Post-Mortem', Int’l J. Const. L. Blog, 28 March 2018.

Ⓟ LOUW R, ‘Meddling with Constitutional Court Powers a Threat to All’, speech to the 2012 Rhodes University graduation, 22 April 2012. 

Ⓜ PITHOUSE R, Writing the Decline: On the Struggle for South Africa's Democracy (Jacana Media, 2016) 


Ⓐ PAGET D, 'Tanzania: Shrinking Space and Opposition Protest' (2017) 28(3) Journal of Democracy 153.


C     International Organisations


1    International Organisations (general/COMPARATIVE)

Ⓐ CLOSA C & PALESTINI S, 'Tutelage and Regime Survival in Regional Organizations' Democracy Protection: The Case of MERCOSUR and UNASUR' (2018) World Politics 1.

Ⓒ FOX G, 'Democracy, Right to, International Protection' in R Wolfrum (ed), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford University Press, 2013).

Ⓔ HALPERIN MH & GALIC M (eds), Protecting Democracy: International Responses (Lexington Books, 2005).

Ⓐ HAWKINS D, ‘Protecting Democracy in Europe and the Americas’ (2008) 62(3) International Organization 373.

ⓦ HELLQUIST E, ‘Regional Organisations and Sanctions against Members – Explaining the Different Trajectories of the African Union, the League of Arab States, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations’, KFG Working Paper Series 59 (2014).

Ⓜ KANETAKE M &‎ NOLLKAEMPER A, The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels: Contestations and Deference (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016).

Ⓜ KARNS MP, MINGST KA & STILES KW, International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance (Lynne Riener Publishers, 2015).

Ⓜ KLABBERS J, An Introduction to International Organizations Law (Cambridge University Press, 2015).

Ⓜ MCMAHON ER & BAKER, SH, Piecing a Democratic Quilt?: Regional Organizations and Universal Norms (Kumarian Press, 2006).

Ⓔ NIJMAN J & NOLLKAEMPER A (eds), New Perspectives on the Divide between National and International Law (Oxford University Press, 2007).

Ⓜ PEVEHOUSE JC, Democracy from Above: Regional Organizations and Democratization (Cambridge University Press, 2005). 

Ⓜ SAROOSHI D, International Organizations and Their Exercise of Sovereign Powers (Oxford University Press, 2007).

Ⓐ VON BOGDANDY A, GOLDMANN M & VENZKE I, ‘From Public International to International Public Law: Translating World Public Opinion into International Public Authority’ (2017) 28 European Journal of International Law [PAGE NUMBER ]. 

Ⓐ VAN DER VLEUTEN A & HOFFMANN A, 'Explaining the Enforcement of Democracy by Regional Organizations: Comparing EU, Mercosur and SADC' (2010) 48(3) Journal of Common Market Studies 737.

Ⓔ VON BOGDANDY A, WOLFRUM R, VON BERNSTORFF J, DANN P & GOLDMANN M (eds), The Exercise of Public Authority by International Institutions: Advancing International Institutional Law (Springer, 2010).


2    european union (EU)

Ⓐ BARATTA R, ‘Rule of Law ‘Dialogues’ Within the EU: A Legal Assessment’ (2016) Hague Journal on the Rule of Law 1.

Ⓐ COMMENTS EDITORIAL, ‘The rule of law in the Union, the rule of Union law and the rule of law by the Union: three interrelated problems’ (2016) 53 Common Market Law Review 597.

Ⓐ CLOSA C, 'The politics of Guarding the Treaties: Commission Scrutiny of Rule of Law Compliance' (2018) Journal of European Public Policy 1. 

Ⓔ CLOSA C & KOCHENOV D (eds), Reinforcing Rule of Law Oversight in the European Union (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

ⓦ CLOSA D, KOCHENOV D & WEILER JHH, ‘Reinforcing Rule of Law Oversight in the European Union’, EUI Working Paper (2014).

Ⓔ DE WITTE B & TOPPENBURG GN, ‘Human rights and membership in the European Union’ in S Peers & A Ward (eds), The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (Hart Publishing, 2004).

Ⓐ IUSMEN I, ‘EU Leverage and democratic backsliding in Central and Eastern Europe: the case of Romania’ (2015) 53(3) Journal of Common Market Studies 593.

Ⓔ JAKAB A & KOCHENOV D (eds), The Enforcement of EU Law and Values Ensuring Member States' Compliance (Oxford University Press, 2017).

Ⓐ KELEMEN, R.D., 'Europe’s Other Democratic Deficit: National Authoritarianism in Europe’s Democratic Union' (2017) 52(2) Government and Opposition 211. 

ⓦ KELEMEN RD, ‘Europe’s other democratic deficit: national authoritarianism in a democratic union’, Paper presented at the Council for European Studies, 22nd International Conference of Europeanists, Paris, 8–10 July 2015.

Ⓐ KOCHENOV D & PECH L, ‘Better Late than Never? On the European Commission’s Rule of Law Framework and its First Activation’ (2016) 54(5) Journal of Common Market Studies 1062.

Ⓐ KOCHENOV D, MAGEN A & PECH L, ‘Introduction: The Great Rule of Law Debate in the EU’ (2016) 54(5) Journal of Common Market Studies 1045.

Ⓐ KOCHENOV D & PECH L, ‘Monitoring and Enforcement of the Rule of Law in the EU: Rhetoric and Reality (2015) 11(3) European Constitutional Law Review 512.

ⓦ KOCHENOV D & PECH L, ‘Upholding the rule of law in the EU: on the Commission’s ‘pre-article 7 procedure’ as a timid step in the right direction’. EUI working papers, RDCAS 2015/24.

Ⓐ KOCHENOV D, ‘Biting Intergovernmentalism: The Case for the Reinvention of Article 259 TFEU to make it a Viable Rule of Law Enforcement Tool’ (2015) 7 Hague Journal on the Rule of Law 153.

Ⓜ KOCHENOV D, EU Enlargement and the Failure of Conditionality: Pre-accession Conditionality in the Fields of Democracy and the Rule of Law (Kluwer Law International, 2008).

Ⓐ MAGEN A, ‘Cracks in the Foundations: Understanding the Great Rule of Law Debate in the EU’ (2016) 54(5) Journal of Common Market Studies 1050.

Ⓑ MÜLLER J-W, ‘The Commission gets the point – but not necessarily the instruments’ Verfassungsblog 15 March 2014. 

Ⓐ MÜLLER J-W, ‘Defending democracy within the EU’ (2013) 24(2) Journal of Democracy 138.

Ⓐ OLIVER P & STEFANELLI J, ‘Strengthening the Rule of Law in the EU: The Council’s Inaction’ (2016) 54(5) Journal of Common Market Studies 1075.

Ⓐ PECH L & SCHEPPELE K, ‘Illiberalism Within: Rule of Law Backsliding in the EU’ (2017) 19 Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 3. 

Ⓐ PECH L, ‘’A Union founded on the rule of law’: meaning and reality of the rule of law as a constitutional principle of EU Law’ (2010) 6 EU Constitutional Law Review 359.

Ⓑ PEERS S, ‘Protecting the rule of law in the EU: should it be the Commission’s task?’ EU Law Analysis 12 March 2014. 

Ⓐ SARGENTINI J & DIMITROVS A, ‘The European Parliament’s Role: Towards New Copenhagen Criteria for Existing Member States?’ (2016) 54(5) Journal of Common Market Studies 1085.

Ⓑ SCHEPPELE, KL, ‘EU Commission v. Hungary: The Case for the “Systemic Infringement Action“’ Verfassungsblog 22 November 2013. 

Ⓔ SCHROEDER W (ed), Strengthening the Rule of Law in Europe. From a Common Concept to Mechanisms of Implementation (Hart Publishing, 2016).

Ⓐ SCHLIPPHAK B & TREIB O, ‘Playing the blame game on Brussels: the domestic political effects of EU interventions against democratic backsliding’ (2016) Journal of European Public Policy [Vol. and page number not yet available].

Ⓟ SCHULTE J (ed), The Other Democratic Deficit: A Toolbox for the EU to Safeguard Democracy in Member States (Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES), 2018).


— Ⓐ ‘Political safeguards against democratic backsliding in the EU: The limits of material sanctions and the scope of social pressure’ (2016) Journal of European Public Policy [Vol. and page number not yet available].

— Ⓐ ‘Anchoring democracy from above? The European Union and democratic backsliding in Hungary and Romania after accession’ (2014) 52(1) Journal of Common Market Studies 105.


— Ⓑ ‘Is the EU Commission’s Rule of Law Fight about Poland already lost?’ Verfassungsblog 17 October 2016. 

— Ⓑ ‘Hungary: Taking Action’ Verfassungsblog 13 March 2013. 

Ⓐ TOGGENBURG GN & GRIMHEDEN J, ‘Upholding Shared Values in the EU: What Role for the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights?’ (2016) 54(5) Journal of Common Market Studies 1093.

Ⓑ UITZ R, ‘Poland, Hungary and Europe: Pre-Article 7 Hopes and Concerns’ Verfassungsblog 14 March 2016. 

Ⓐ VON BOGDANDY A & IOANNIDIS M, ‘Systemic deficiency in the rule of law: what it is, what has been done, what can be done’ (2014) 51(1) Common Market Law Review 59.


3    organisation of american states (OAS)

Ⓐ CAMINOS H, ‘The Role of the Organization of American States in the Promotion and Protection of Democratic Governance’ Recueil des cours Vol. 273 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1999).

Ⓜ COOPER AF & LEGLER T, Intervention Without Intervening?: The OAS Defense and Promotion of Democracy in the Americas (Palgrave MacMillan, 2006).

Ⓐ DE ZELA MARTÍNEZ H, ‘The Organization of American States and its Quest for Democracy in the Americas’ (2013) 8 Yale Journal of International Affairs 23.

Ⓜ HEINE J & WEIFFEN B, 21st Century Democracy Promotion in the Americas: Standing Up for the Polity (Routledge, 2014).

ⓂHERZ M, The Organization of American States (OAS) (Routledge, 2011).

Ⓒ PERINA RM, ‘The Inter-American Democratic Charter: an assessment and ways to strengthen it’ in C Amat (ed), The Road to Hemispheric Cooperation: Beyond the Cartagena Summit of the Americas (Brookings Institution, 2012). 

Ⓐ SANTISTEVAN DE NORIEGA J, ‘Should the office of Ombudsman for Democracy be created in the Inter‐American system?’ (2012) 3(1) Latin American Policy 102.

Ⓐ SARANTI V, ‘A system of collective defense – the case of the IADC’ (2011) 3(2) Goettingen Journal of International Law 675.

Ⓐ SORIA LUJÁN D, ‘Las democracias con libertades disminuidas en Latinoamérica en el siglo XXI y la Carta Democrática Interamericana: ¿Dos modelos de democracia en la región?’ (2015) 75 Derecho PUCP 57.



Ⓐ PORTES A, 'Regime effectiveness and democracy protection: the responses of Mercosur to the impeachment processes in Paraguay and Brazil' (2017) 8(41) Revista Conjuntura Austral 58.

Ⓐ VIDAGAL G, 'Enforcing democracy at the regional level: Paraguay's suspension before the Mercosur Court' (2013) 2(2) Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law 337.


5   African union (au)

Ⓐ ELVY S-A, ‘Towards a new democratic Africa: the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance’, (2013) 27 Emory International Law Review 41.

Ⓐ GLEN PJ, ‘Institutionalizing democracy in Africa - a comment on the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance’ (2012) 5 African Journal of Legal Studies 119.

Ⓟ AFRICAN UNION (AU), Ezulwini Framework for the Enhancement of the Implementation of Measures of the African Union in Situations of Unconstitutional Changes of Government, 2009a. 

Ⓟ AYALA CORAO C & NIKKEN BELLSHAW-HÓGG P. Collective Defense of Democracy: Concepts and Procedures (Andean Commission of Jurists, 2006: Diffusion of the Inter-American Democratic Charter Series, 5).

Ⓟ ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU), Report on the Sub-Committee of the Central Organ on Unconstitutional Changes of Government, Lomé, 2000.


6   Commonwealth

Ⓐ BANERJI A, ‘The Commonwealth of Nations: A Force for Democracy in the 21st Century?’ (2008) 97 The Round Table 813.

Ⓐ COLVILLE R, ‘A Place to Stand: The Problems and Potential of the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group’ (2004) 93(375) The Round Table 343.

ⒶSHARMA K, ‘Democracy and the Commonwealth’ (2011) 100(412) The Round Table 39.